Archive for July, 2014

Doing an ice cream bar for your next big summer party?  Here’s a great idea for party favors that keep with the ice cream bar theme, but won’t melt before your guests get home.  Melville Ice Cream Cone Lollipops!

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Melville Ice Cream Cone Chocolate Lollipops

 

These chocolate pops are handmade and dipped in hard cardy, creating a beautiful glossy shell in vibrant colors.  It doesn’t hurt that they’re delicious too!  They come in two different sizes, the standard size pop with a red candy cherry,

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Melville Ice Cream Cone Chocolate Lollipops with Cherry on Top

 

and the giant size with sprinkles.

melville, candy, company, ice cream, cone, chocolate, lollipop, summer, parlor, parlour, treat, party favor, bar, sprinkles, giant,

Melville Giant Ice Cream Cone Chocolate Lollipops with Sprinkles

 

There are so many fun ways that you could present these.  We did the big ones standing up in a big jar,(with some help from some painted wood shavings and a styrofoam block) while the small ones fit perfectly in a sundae glass.  Lastly, we added a little sign to let people know they’re lollipops, and give the whole set up a vintage ice cream parlor feel.

melville, candy, company, ice cream, cone, chocolate, lollipop, summer, parlor, parlour, treat, party favor, bar, sprinkles, cherry, giant, container, sign, inspiration, ideas

Lollipop sign and container ideas

 

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Heres a treat for your backyard barbecue that promises to cool you down, no cooler needed!

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Nobody loves a popsicle or creamsicle in summertime more than we do, but if you’re setting up a candy buffet or snack table for your summertime soiree (or something a little more laid-back!) frozen treats can be a potential headache.  You need the extra cooler, and enough ice to keep it cool for 3 or 4 hours.  Plus, you need to keep an eye on it for when it needs to be emptied and refreshed.  And you can still end up with all the goodies becoming a goopy, soggy mess!

Well, we found the perfect solution.  These real size ice pop and cream pop lollipops from the Melville Candy Company come in all your favorite flavors, and are an easy addition to your snack and candy buffet.  Not a lot of candy can say summertime the ways these do!

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For a neat centerpiece, try this:  Take a standard metal bucket that you can find at a garden center or home design store.  In the bottom put a foam or styrofoamblock, and stick the popsicle sticks up right into the foam.  Next fill the bucket up to the top with clear rock candy.  Now you have faux ice to go along with your lollipop popsicles!IMG_0691

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You probably noticed that we subtitled this blog, “A history of the birth of the lollipop” rather than “The birth of the lollipop.” Well, that’s because there are so many “historical” versions of the origins of the lolli, almost as many as the tongue licks in a lollipop.  Although the saying, “there’s a sucker born every minute” is often attributed to the famous American circus showman P.T. Barnum, no one really knows its origins. You’ll discover here why this saying might just as easily have been said by someone trying to follow the story of the lollipop.

Legend has it that the origins of lollipops (sometimes spelled lollypops) can be found on cave paintings of people licking sticks used to collect honey from beehives. Also, there’s evidence that the ancient Chinese, Arabs, and Egyptians made candied fruit and nuts using honey and inserting sticks into the sweet mixture, thereby making it easier to eat. This sweet mix was originally used for preserving fruits and nuts rather than as a sweet treat (Food Timeline).

Candy Apples                                                                                                                                           Chinese Candied Fruit – Tanghulu

By the 17th century, as sugar from the Caribbean became more plentiful for the English, sugar moved from simply being a medicinal base to something sweet to eat. Richardson, in his 2002 book, Sweets: A History of Candy, writes that the distinction between the medicinal and confectionary uses of sweets was blurred from candy’s very beginnings, creating a sort of crisis for apothecaries. Richardson writes that at the time, pharmacists were quite scornful of the confectioners probably because the candyman could sell sweets to those looking for something tasty rather than something to simply cure an ill.

The 16th Century physician, Tabernaemontaus, claimed this of sugar candy: “As a powder it is good for the eyes, as a smoke it is good for common colds, as flour sprinkled on wounds it heals them.” Pierre Pomet continues these claims in his book A Compleat History of Drugs (1712) where he says “Put into the eyes in fine powder, they take way their dimness, and heal them being bloodshot, as they cleane old sores, being strew’d gently upon them.” (Richardson, 2002)

As described by Henry Weatherley in his 1864 book, A Treatise on the Art of Boiling Sugar, the English boiled sugar and inserted sticks into the sweet treat to make eating the sugary substance less messy. This boiled sugary treat on a stick marks the beginning of the first modern sugar lollipop.


Rock Candy

 

Sugar Pop (Rock Candy)

By the mid 1800s, confectioners were selling their sweets on the streets including rock, stick, lozenges, and candies all made by boiling sugar (Richardson, 2002). Many of the sweet sellers were also making these sweets in their cellars.

Lollipop Fact:Linguists say that the term ‘lolly pop’ literally means ‘tongue slap’ (which we find hilarious) since the word for ‘tongue’ is ‘lolly’ in Northern England and ‘pop’ means ‘slap.’ The London street vendor may have coined this term when vending the sweet delight. Although this was likely a soft rather than hard treat it is still considered a possible forerunner to the modern lollipop.

By the time of the Civil War, hard candy was put on the tips of pencils for children. They  loved the candy on a stick so much that in the early 20th century automation technology created a lollipop manufacturing industry. Who is considered the original creator of manufactured lollipops? Well, again as it seems with all of candy history, sucker origin stories abound.

In the first sweet origin version, dating back to the 1880s, Arthur Spangler, from Bryan, Ohio, was one of the first makers of chocolate to put a stick into the caramel candy he was making, probably for the same reason everyone before him did—to avoid packaging and causing a sticky situation in customers’ hands.

Around the same time as Spangler, George P. Smith of Bradley-Smith Candy Company in New Haven, CT decided  to put a stick into the balls of caramel candy he was making. Keep your eyes out for George Smith as we will hear more about him later in this candy story.

Salted Caramel Lollipop                                                                                                                                            Modern Salted Caramel Lollipop

Another candy birth legend involves the owner of the McAviney Candy Company who in 1905 is said to have stumbled upon the lollipop by accident. The company made boiled hard candies that were stirred with a stick, and at day’s end, the owner brought the sticks covered with the candy home for his kids to enjoy.  By 1908, McAviney Candy began to market these “used candy sticks.”

Apple Lollipop                                                                                                                                Candy-Coated Stick (Apple Cinnamon Spoon)

Sucker Machine                                                                                                                                                  Modern Lollipop Machine

In 1908, the owner of the Racine Confectioners Machine Company from Racine Wisconsin, introduced a machine that placed a stick into hard candy at the rate of 2,400 sticks per hour. Owners believed they could produce enough lollipops (although they weren’t called that yet) in a single week to supply the nation’s demand for an entire year. They were called the “all-day sucker.”

Bradely Smith Company                                                                                                                                                     Bradley Smith Company

And, remember George Smith from earlier in this blog, of the Bradley Smith Company. Well he said: “Hey, we started the lollipop!”  Smith took credit for inventing the modern version of the lollipop which he began making in 1908.  Hey, anyone else noticing how 1908 shows up again and again in these candy origin stories?  Well anyways, back to Smith. In 1931, Smith trademarked the term “lollipop,” where legend has it that he used the name of a famous racehorse named Lolly Pop. For many candy historians, the naming and trademarking of “candy on sticks” as lollipops marks the origins of the lollipop.  Hey, notice the word lollipop connecting back to the 17th Century phrase ‘tongue slap,’ remember?

All Day Sucker                                                                                                                                                         Born Sucker Machine

By 1916, a Russian immigrant, Samuel Born, invented an automated process for inserting the sticks into the candy batch. And, this machine was called the Born Sucker Machine. Sweet name for a machine, ey. Anyway, the City of San Francisco considered this machine so creative that, in 1916, they granted him the “keys to the city.”

So there you have it. Lots of tongue lick slapper stories for the birth of the lollipop. But, don’t try to say that last line five times fast–or your tongue will be slapping faster than you can lick to the center of a lollipop.

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Candy.com Chocolate

Hello there. In honor of Chocolate Day, we present to you “The History of Chocolate.”  Anyways, quick trivia. What came first: chocolate candy or hot chocolate? Take a wild guess.  If you haven’t guessed yet, do so now, because the answer is coming. Now, here it comes. The answer is…drumroll please….. neither.

Mokaya ShardCeramic shard found in Paso de la Amada

containing cacao residue (Antiquity)

You see, archaeological evidence in 2007 reveal residue of cacao beverages—yes beverages with a plural s—in ceramic shards found in Paso de la Amada of Chiapas, Mexico (found in blue in figure 1), dating back to the Mokaya villagers of 1900-1700 B.C.E. Mesoamerica. The Mayans also occupied Chiapas, Mexico, which links pottery of the Mokaya to pottery of the Maya.

Mexico States

Central America

Anyways, the Mokaya are believed to have first processed cacao and consumed it as liquid chocolate. Where the cacao comes from is disputable between South and Central America. Studies aren’t too clear on how the drink was served during this period either, but later dates (as in Maya-later and not us later mind you) indicate a closer resemblance to cocoa than hot chocolate, but we’ll get to that later.

Back to the science, other archaeological evidence reveal cacao residue in a pottery dating 1650-1500 B.C.E. in the archeological site of El Manati of Veracruz, Mexico (found in green in figure 1).

Chocolate Vessel - Science Museum of MinnesotaMayan chocolate vessel found in

Veracruz, Mexico (Science Museum of Minnesota)

Interestingly enough, the ceramic the residue came from was a ritual-type ceramic (wink wink). Another 2007 study also found over 10 ceremonial (wink wink) drinking vessels, dating between 1300-900 B.C.E., contained cacao residue—from archaeological site Puerto Escondido of the Ulúa River Valley of Honduras (found in purple in figure 2). That sits near the Olmec civilization which is considered Mesoamerica’s first great civilization, originating in Guatemala circa 1200-400 B.C.E.

Now, normally, when you think of rituals and ceremonies, and all of those important events that gather lots and lots of important people, what do you think of first in terms of drinks. (Hint: we call them drinks.) If you haven’t guessed yet, here’s the answer: booze.

Eureka Beer GuideChocolate Beer (Eureka Beer Guide)

You see, back in ancient times, beer was the preferred drink. It could be made with crops in abundance (like say the Mesoamerican maize for example *cough cough*) and could be easily stored. Moreover, plain water might be contaminated and cause illness or death when drunk (no pun intended). Alcohol, with its antibacterial properties, thus became the safer alternative to drinking water.

ChichaChicha de Jora – Fermented Corn beer

(jasmine navarro oviedo)

Products high in sugar—like chocolate—were preferred in alcohol production. See where I’m going here? Cacao, whether the seeds or the fruit depending on whom you ask, was thereby very likely fermented by the ancients to produce chicha—a type of corn beer made from maize.

As exciting as the ancient chocolate beer recipe is (it really doesn’t taste like cocoa or hot chocolate), even more exciting is the fact that the Olmecs came up with the “fermenting, drying, roasting and grinding process” that stems modern chocolate processing.

Of course, while it seems that chocolate history would stop there and jump straight to the modern chocolate we eat today, that’s not quite how people work.

Rio Azul VesselsChocolate Vessels found in the burial

grounds of Rio Azul (Authentic Maya)

A 2002 study found traces of chocolate in ceramic vessels in burial sites found in the Mayan archaeological site Colha of the country Belize (found in orange in figure 2). The vessels date between 1000 B.C.E. to 250 C.E. An earlier study in 1990 found more evidence of chocolate in vessels dating 460-480 C.E. at Maya burial grounds (did things turn superstitious or what?) in Rio Azul, Guatemala. They believed that it would help sustain their dead in the afterlife.

HeiroglyphMaya Hieroglyph of Cacao (Authentic Maya)

Vessels like the one shown above would have hieroglyphs depicting cacao (written in what translates roughly to “ka’kau”).

Rio Azul - Chocolate PotChocolate Pot from Rio Azul

(Authentic Maya)

The Mayans, though, didn’t make their chocolate quite the same way as the Olmecs. The Mayans added chili (and to think we thought hot sauce chocolate was new), vanilla planifolia, and/or honey to their cacao beverages. They also poured it back and forth into different containers (like shaking a cocktail) to make it nice and frothy. Served hot, it resembled modern-day cocoa.

Chocolate atoleChocolate Atole (Magnus Manske)

In addition to the predecessor of cocoa, the Mayans also had chocolate atole, a drink thickened with atol (a corn based beverage/gruel).

The Mayans also used cacao as medicine and as battle provisions for warriors. Cacao would be mixed with flowers or packed into small slabs with corn meal. Energy bar anyone?

Late Classic Maya VaseMayan Vase Depicting A Lord And His Chocolate (Authentic Maya)

Wrapping it all together, the Maya were very close to their chocolate. They drank chocolate. They ate chocolate. They treated ailments with chocolate (How? I don’t know.). They fought battles with chocolate. They scribed about chocolate (on their pottery). They celebrated holidays, weddings, feasts, and ceremonies with chocolate. (They have chocolate myths associated with the ceremonies as well.) Heck, they even died with chocolate. Granted, some of them didn’t really want to die with chocolate, seeing as the cacao beans were just added in to human sacrifice rituals because the royals wanted them to, but hey. Whatever floats their boats.

To recap, the Mokaya made drinks with their cacao. The Olmecs made alcohol with their cacao. The Mayans did almost everything with their cacao. In this Mesoamerican chocolate saga, there’s still the later Aztecs and Incas to go.

Do they follow the footsteps of their predecessors and find even more ways to bind with their chocolate? Or do they wait it out and leave it up to us North Americans (*cough* Hershey’s *cough*)? Stay tuned to find out.

(If you can’t wait to find out though, the National Confectioners Association has a detailed history of chocolate in the ancient world at http://thestoryofchocolate.com/ and Mars—the company, not the planet, silly—has a really good timeline on chocolate history at http://www.americanheritagechocolate.com)

 

References

Authentic Maya. (2011, January 28). The Maya and the ka’kau’  (cacao). The Authentic Maya Culture, and Guatemala. Retrieved from http://www.authenticmaya.com/cacao.htm

Cartwright, M. (2013, August 30). Olmec civilization. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.ancient.eu.com/Olmec_Civilization/

Hall, G. D., Tarka Jr., S. M., Hurst, W. J., Stuart, D., & Adams, R. E. W. (1990). Cacao residues in ancient Maya vessels from Rio Azul, Guatemala. American Antiquity, 55(1), 138-143. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/281499

Henderson, J. S. (1997). The world of the ancient Maya [Google E-book]. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=kqk56Jc28LcC&pg=PA73&lpg=PA73&dq=mokaya+maya+mesoamerica&source=bl&ots=-McD8F_Ddt&sig=GIyAnXJ37zknV3is609G0HOKTG4&hl=en&sa=X&ei=twK5U5GgBsmjyATU7oFA&ved=0CEoQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=mokaya%20maya%20mesoamerica&f=false

Henderson, J. S., Joyce, R. A., Hall, G. R., Hurst, W. J., & McGovern, P. E. (2007). Chemical and archaeological evidence for the earliest cacao beverages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(48), 18937-18940. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0708815104

Hirst, K. K. (n.d.). Chocolate domestication: The history of the domestication of chocolate. About.com, Archaeology. Retrieved from http://archaeology.about.com/od/cterms/qt/chocolate.htm

Mark, J. J. (2012, July 6). Maya civilization. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.ancient.eu.com/Maya_Civilization/

McGovern, P. E. (n.d.). Chicha. Biomolecular Archaeology Laboratory. Retrieved from http://www.penn.museum/sites/biomoleculararchaeology/?page_id=147

Powis, T. G., Hurst, J. W., del Carmen Rodríguez, M., Ortíz C., P. Blake, M., Cheetham, D., Coe, M. D., & Hodgson, J. G. (2007). Oldest chocolate in the New World. Antiquity, 81(314). Retrieved from http://antiquity.ac.uk/projgall/powis/index.html#author

Powis, T. G., Valdez Jr., F., Hester, T. R., Hurst, W. J., & Tarka Jr., S. M. (2002). Spouted vessels and cacao use among the preclassic Maya. Latin American Antiquity, 13(1), 85-106. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/971742

Science Museum of Minnesota. (2014). Have a cup of cocoa, Maya style. Science Buzz. Retrieved from http://www.sciencebuzz.org/museum/object/2013_12_chocolate

Standage, T. (2005). A history of the world in 6 glasses. New York, NY: Walker Publishing Company Inc.

Image References

Authentic Maya. (2011, January 28). Chocolate pot. The Authentic Maya Culture, and Guatemala. Retrieved 2014, July 6 from http://www.authenticmaya.com/cacao.htm

Authentic Maya. (2011, January 28). Chocolate Vessels found in the burial. The Authentic Maya Culture, and Guatemala. Retrieved 2014, July 6 from http://www.authenticmaya.com/cacao.htm

Authentic Maya. (2011, January 28). Maya hieroglyph of cacao. The Authentic Maya Culture, and Guatemala. Retrieved 2014, July 6 from http://www.authenticmaya.com/cacao.htm

Authentic Maya. (2011, January 28). Mayan vase depicting a lord and his chocolate. The Authentic Maya Culture, and Guatemala. Retrieved 2014, July 6 from http://www.authenticmaya.com/cacao.htm

Виктор В. (2010, November 14). Outline map of Central America. Wikipedia. Retrieved 2014, July 6 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_spheres_of_Costa_Rica#mediaviewer/File:Outline_map_of_Central_America.svg

Eureka Beer Guide. (2014). Beer and chocolate. Retrieved 2014, July 6 from http://eurekabeerguide.com/beer-and-chocolate-events/

jasmine navarro oviedo. (2013). Chicha de jora. Retrieved 2014, July 6 from http://navarrooviedoj.blogspot.com/

Magnus Manske. (2007, May 26). Chocolate atole. Wikipedia. Retrieved 2014, July 6 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Champurrado#mediaviewer/File:Champurrado_thenewplace_sf.jpg

Powis, T. G., Hurst, J. W., del Carmen Rodríguez, M., Ortíz C., P. Blake, M., Cheetham, D., Coe, M. D., & Hodgson, J. G. (2007). Ceramic shard found in Paso de la Amada. Antiquity, 81(314). Retrieved 2014, July 6 from http://antiquity.ac.uk/projgall/powis/index.html#author

Science Museum of Minnesota. (2014). Mayan chocolate vessel found in Veracruz, Mexico. Science Buzz. Retrieved 2014, July 6 from http://www.sciencebuzz.org/museum/object/2013_12_chocolate

Sémhur. (2008, September 24). Map of Mexico, with state borders. Wikipedia. Retrieved 2014, July 6 from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mexico_States_blank_map.svg

Watson, T. (2013, January 22). Earliest evidence of chocolate in North America. AAAS, Archaeology. Retrieved 2014, July 6 from http://news.sciencemag.org/2013/01/earliest-evidence-chocolate-north-america?ref=hp#.UP-YsBLRlTg.mailto

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